Info

jupiter

Jupiter
Designations
Pronunciation /ˈptər/[1]
Adjectives Jovian
Orbital characteristics[5]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 5.45492 AU (816.04 Gm)
Perihelion 4.95029 AU (740.55 Gm)
Semi-major axis
5.20260 AU (778.299 Gm)
Eccentricity 0.048498
Orbital period
  • 11.8618 yr
  • 4,332.59 d
  • 10,475.8 Jovian solar days[2]
Synodic period
398.88 d[3]
Average orbital speed
13.07 km/s[3]
Mean anomaly
20.020°
Inclination
  • 1.303° to ecliptic
  • 6.09° to Sun's equator
  • 0.32° to invariable plane[4]
Longitude of ascending node
100.464°
Argument of perihelion
273.867°
Known satellites 67 (as of 2014)
Physical characteristics
Mean radius
69,911±6 km[6][b]
Equatorial radius
  • 71,492±4 km[6][b]
  • 11.209 Earths
Polar radius
  • 66,854±10 km[6][b]
  • 10.517 Earths
Flattening 0.06487±0.00015
Surface area
  • 6.1419×1010 km2[b][7]
  • 121.9 Earths
Volume
  • 1.4313×1015 km3[3][b]
  • 1,321 Earths
Mass
  • 1.8986×1027 kg[3]
  • 317.8 Earths
  • 1/1047 Sun[8]
Mean density
1.326 g/cm3[3][b]
Surface gravity
24.79 m/s2[3][b]
2.528 g
Moment of inertia factor
0.254[9]
Escape velocity
59.5 km/s[3][b]
Sidereal rotation period
9.925 h[10] (9 h 55 m 30 s)
Equatorial rotation velocity
12.6 km/s
45300 km/h
Axial tilt
3.13° (to orbit)[3]
North pole right ascension
268.057°
17h 52m 14s[6]
North pole declination
64.496°[6]
Albedo 0.343 (Bond)
0.52 (geom.)[3]
Surface temp.minmeanmax
1 bar level   165 K (−108 °C)[3]  
0.1 bar   112 K[3]  
Apparent magnitude
−1.6 to −2.94[3]
Angular diameter
29.8″ to 50.1″[3]
Atmosphere[3]
Surface pressure
20–200 kPa[11] (cloud layer)
Scale height
27 km
Composition by volume

by volume:

89.8±2.0% hydrogen (H2)
10.2±2.0% helium (He)
≈ 0.3% methane (CH4)
≈ 0.026% ammonia (NH3)
≈ 0.003% hydrogen deuteride (HD)
0.0006% ethane (C2H6)
0.0004% water (H2O)

Ices:

  • ammonia (NH3)
  • water (H2O)
  • ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH)